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The skeletal muscle is an integral part of our system. It not only acts as the storage reservoir of amino acids, but also serves as the site for protein synthesis and protein breakdown . The rate of protein synthesis needs to exceed protein degradation to achieve muscle hypertrophy [18, 24]. The timing of protein intake, type and quantity play a significant role in achieving optimal outcomes when applied to resistance exercise . Research has been going on since the past decade demonstrating the role of nutritional supplements like whey protein, soy, branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs, especially leucine) and creatine on protein synthesis before, during and after a bout of resistance exercise through careful investigations into intracellular signalling pathways like the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and its downstream targets-ribosomal protein S6 (kinase-1) and 4E binding protein (4E-BP1) [7, 18]. Intracellular signalling, amongst other variables, involves three essential components-abundant ATP in muscle for providing energy, insulin signalling and leucine (figure 1) [36, 37]. mTOR, regarded as the 'key regulator' of translation comprises mTORC1 and mTORC2 . mTORC1 plays a significant role in promoting muscular hypertrophy via phosphorylation of S6K1 and 4E-BP1 which prevent binding of the eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E to 4E-BP1 allowing a complex formation with eIF4G (eIF4E-eIF4G) thus enhancing protein synthesis [5, 34]. This report highlights ho whey proteins and BCAA (leucine) affect muscle protein synthesis via intracellular signalling pathways thereby contributing significant effects on muscular hypertrophy.
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This is the second edition of a unique book in the field of in vivo NMR covering in detail the technical and biophysical aspects of the technique.
The contents of the book are appropriate to both beginners and experienced users of in vivo NMR spectroscopy. The new edition is focussed on bringing the reader practical insights and advice, but is also geared towards use as a study aid and in NMR courses. Recent advances in NMR spectroscopy, like high field NMR, hyperpolarized NMR and new localization and editing techniques have been included. An extensive and updated treatment of radiofrequency pulses is given, together with several tables and recipes for their generation.
Solutions to the exercises within this text can be found here
This book describes innovative techniques to study catalysts and reaction mechanisms, helping chemists improve the performance of their reactions and the efficiency (through reduced materials and waste) of catalyst preparation. It explains both the scope and limitations of specific techniques, including the characterization of the electronic and structural properties of catalysts using XAFS (X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy); techniques for structural characterization based on X-ray diffraction and scattering; for microscopy and morphological studies; for studying the interaction of adsorbates with catalyst surfaces (Raman spectroscopy, NMR, moderate pressure XPS); and mixed techniques.
In this paper, we do an analysis on the influential pioneer project in the application area of Heuristic programming for experimental analysis in empirical science using IUPAC conventions. The primary aim of the DENDRAL project was to help organic chemists in identifying unknown organic molecules from compounds extracted from known origin that had medicinal or utility value. The process was done by analysing their mass spectra and then undergoing comparative study using knowledge of chemistry. It was done at Stanford University by Edward Feigenbaum, Bruce Buchanan, Joshua Lederberg, and Carl Djerassi. It began in 1965 and spans approximately half the history of AI research. The DENDRAL Project was one of the first large-scale programs to embody the strategy of using detailed, task-specific knowledge about a problem domain as a source of heuristics, and to seek generality through automating the acquisition of such knowledge.
The book introduces the reader into the ultrafast nanoworld of graphene and carbon nanotubes, including their microscopic tracks and unique optical finger prints. The author reviews the recent progress in this field by combining theoretical and experimental achievements. He offers a clear theoretical foundation by presenting transparently derived equations. Recent experimental breakthroughs are reviewed. This makes the book suitable for a wider audience, from graduate students and to researchers in academia and industry working on optoelectronic devices, renewable energies, and in the semiconductor industry.
Given the importance of injection molding as a process as well as the simulation industry that supports it, there was a need for a book that deals solely with the modeling and simulation of injection molding. This book meets that need. The modeling and simulation details of filling, packing, residual stress, shrinkage, and warpage of amorphous, semi-crystalline, and fiber-filled materials are described. This book is essential for simulation software users, as well as for graduate students and researchers who are interested in enhancing simulation. And for the specialist, numerous appendices provide detailed information on the topics discussed in the chapters. Contents:Part 1 The Current State of Simulation: Introduction, Stress and Strain in Fluid Mechanics, Material Properties of Polymers, Governing Equations, Approximations for Injection Molding, Numerical Methods for Solution Part 2 Improving Molding Simulation: Improved Fiber Orientation Modeling, Improved Mechanical Property Modeling, Long Fiber-Filled Materials, Crystallization, Effects of Crystallizations on Rheology and Thermal Properties, Colorant Effects, Prediction of Post-Molding Shrinkage and Warpage, Additional Issues of Injection-Molding Simulation, EpilogueAppendices: History of Injection-Molding Simulation, Tensor Notation, Derivation of Fiber Evolution Equations, Dimensional Analysis of Governing Equations, The Finite Difference Method, The Finite Element Method, Numerical Methods for the 2.5D Approximation, Three-Dimensional FEM for Mold Filling Analysis, Level Set Method, Full Form of Mori-Tanaka ModelDEUTSCH:Peter Kennedy, geboren 1955 in Australien hat Mathematik studiert und in Maschinenbau promoviert. Er arbeitete mehr als 22 Jahre für Moldflow, den ersten kommerziellen Anbieter von Simulations-Software für Spritzgiessverfahren. Rong Zheng, geboren 1947 in China hat 1991 in Computational Rheology an der University of Sydney promoviert. Von 1993 bis 2009 arbeitete er für Moldflow Pty. Ltd. (jetzt Autodesk) u.a. an der Simulation von SpritzgussverfahrenENGLISH:Peter Kennedy was born in Melbourne, Australia, on the 22nd of November 1955. He studied Mathematics and Education at Melbourne and La Trobe Universities and has a Doctorate in Mechanical Engineering from the Technical University of Eindhoven. After teaching high school mathematics Peter joined Moldflow, the first commercial company to provide simulation software for injection molding. During a total time of 22 years at Moldflow he worked in various positions related to molding simulation and the development of the company's key technologies through internally directed research programs and cooperative projects with academic and industrial research organizations. Rong Zheng is an Australian citizen and was born in Xiamen, China, in 1947. He obtained a BSc in Mechanical Engineering in 1982 and a Master degree in Polymer Processing in 1985 at South China University of Technology and a PhD in Computational Rheology in 1991 at The University of Sydney, where he continued as a Post-doctoral Fellow from 1991-1993. From 1993 to 2009, he was working in Moldflow Pty. Ltd. (now Autodesk) on research and development of science-based technology for modeling and simulation of injection molding, and was involved as a Chief/Partner Investigator in several collaborative research projects between Moldflow and Universities. He is currently an Adjunct Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Sydney....
This new edition of Invasion Ecology provides a comprehensive and updated introduction to all aspects of biological invasion by non-native species. Highlighting important research findings associated with each stage of invasion, the book provides an overview of the invasion process from transportation patterns and causes of establishment success to ecological impacts, invader management, and post-invasion evolution. The authors have produced new chapters on predicting and preventing invasion, managing and eradicating invasive species, and invasion dynamics in a changing climate.
Modern global trade and travel have led to unprecedented movement of non-native species by humans with unforeseen, interesting, and occasionally devastating consequences. Increasing recognition of the problems associated with invasion has led to a rapid growth in research into the dynamics of non-native species and their adverse effects on native biota and human economies. This book provides a synthesis of this fast growing field of research and is an essential text for undergraduate and graduate students in ecology and conservation management.Additional resources are available at www.wiley.com/go/invasionecology
Understanding plant nuclear structure - the spatial and dynamic organisation of the plant nucleus and the function and interactions of its components (e.g. RNA, proteins, nuclear envelope) – is vital in determining an integrated structural, physical and functional map of the genome. Along with the plant’s genomic architecture - the organization of repetitive and single-copy DNA sequences along the chromosomes, and the nature, evolution, expression, recombination and segregation of the DNA sequences within the nucleus at various stages of cell division – it has important consequences for plant genetics.
Models of large scale genome organization are valuable in determining the function of different components of the genome. This fundamental work has applications in biodiversity, phylogenetic and evolution studies, and for plant breeding/crop improvement – e.g. understanding of the origin, diversity and evolution of agricultural species and improvement of these species using novel genetic resources. For example, breeding of drought-tolerant strains of food crops such as wheat, rye and barley using GM or transgenic genes.
This volume is based on significant progress made in the last five years in the knowledge and understanding of the organisation of the higher plant nucleus, and in particular in the relationship between nuclear organisation and the regulation of gene expression in a variety of contexts. The volume therefore begins with a consideration of the fundamentals underlying structural entities of the nucleus; the nuclear envelope and its associations; recent progress on the nucleoskeleton and plant lamina and the nuclear pore complexes. The role of the envelope in cell signalling is presented.
The second section of the volume then deals with nuclear structure and the nucleolus, and considers the role, structure and function of the nucleolus; chromatin packaging and the structure and organisation of the nucleus in meiosis including telomeres and anchorage of meiotic chromosomes.
In the third section, Nuclear structure, chromatin position and gene expression, topics include heterochromatin remodelling and nuclear architecture and its influence on gene expression; transposons; genomics and chromatin organization and chromosome structure, expression and interphase organization.
Finally, applications of the topic are considered including nuclear import and export of plant virus proteins and genomes and structural effects in transformation and DNA insertion.
This multi-volume set is the latest update on improving crop resistance to abiotic stress using the advanced key methods of proteomics, genomics and metabolomics. The well balanced international mix of contributors from industry and academia cover work carried out on individual crop plants, while also including studies of model organisms that can then be applied to specific crop plants.
This book is intended for Agricultural Scientists, Students of Agriculture, Plant Physiologists, Plant Breeders, Botanists and Biotechnologists.
This is the first resource to fully cover the instrumentation, method development, and applications of Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (U-HPLC). It details both the benefits and limitations of this method in the pharmaceutical industry, clinical research, the food industry, and environmental services. It covers U-HPLC topics coupled with ultra-violet detector (UV) and mass spectrometer (MS), instrumentation frequently used in solving complex molecules. This is an essential reference for scientists who utilize chromatographic techniques, including in academia, as well as pharmaceutical, biotechnology, chemical, food, environmental, and related industries.