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This richly illustrated, up-to-date guide offers practical coverage of all aspects of lighting design. Written by an award-winning, internationally known lighting designer, it covers lighting practices, materials, and their design applications and offers guidelines for preparing lighting drawings, control and transfer charts, symbol lists, and other technical specifications. This edition provides a new focus on the use of LEDs, as well as new and expanded coverage of renderings, Mesopic Vision, and the latest controls approaches and systems.
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Seminar paper from the year 2003 in the subject Art - Architecture / History of Construction, grade: very good, Technical University of Graz (Faculty for Architekture / Institute City Development), language: English, abstract: The Yangtze River Delta, Shanghai-Nanjing-Hangzhou is undergoing a radical upheaval process - the dimension and the speed of Shanghai's development exceeds European thinking. Between 1978 and 1990 about ?3 billion were spent on urban infrastructure projects, in the next six years between 1991 and 1997 the investment exceeded ?18 billion. In the early eighties the construction of the whole public mass transport system started from scratch, following the strategic neglecting by the Central Government in Beijing. Today, after the reforms of Deng Xiaoping and Jiang Zemin, a former mayor of Shanghai, it is said that the city's large construction projects are the PRC Government's 'cuddles'. 2002 about 80 urban infrastructure projects with an investment of ?6,5 billion were under construction, supporting ?AIR TRAFFIC ?RAIL TRAFFIC ?ROAD TRAFFIC and ?SHIPPING. In my opinion the rapid changes in the transport infrastructure will change more than the map of the city or the mere building reality - it will change the city's timescale. Firstly I want to focus on the meaning of the transport issue for China's and Shanghai's economy and competitiveness. Shanghai has a great potential, but today it lacks fluency. The PRC Central Government, with it's rising conscious of China's global role, has realized this fact. The new economic and political ambition has overcome stone-age Maoism of bleeding white 'decadent' cities - Pudong New Area with China's stock exchange in Luijazui demonstrates this ambition. The strategic position on the China Sea and the estuary of the Yangtze River enables Shanghai to function as East Asia's main gate, both for domestic and supranational trade. The current deep water port and dredging projects combined with new road and rail connections to the rest of the PRC and its neighbours create the 'right flow' for growing, like the comparison of the GDP and the container throughput shows. However China's new economic 'XIAHAI' policy (promoting entrepreneurship) separates severely from the governments restrictive social control, leading to the next issue - mobility und urbanization. On the one hand the improvement of the mass transport infrastructure like the extension of six further metro lines until 2005 increases the local mobility. Today Shanghai is characterized by a high dense core and a low density outside core, such as the comparison with London shows. [...]...
Essay from the year 2005 in the subject Art - Architecture / History of Construction, grade: 66 out of 80, University of Essex, 12 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: If one hears the name of Louis XIV, the word Versailles almost immediately pops up into one's brain without making much effort thinking; it does not matter a lot whether one is an art historian or political scientist or a mere visitor of Paris. The question is: why is that? The answer is that king Louis XIV, who ordered to built this castle, and his minister Corbet, who transferred his visions into reality, apparently have done a brilliant job: over 400 years after it was built, it is still fulfilling its duty to massively represent the king's greatness, power and splendour and to undoubtedly connect it with his name and making him immortal. However pathetic this may sound, if we imagine ourselves back in the baroque period where the Versailles castle of Louis XIV was built, the paradigms were certainly not as enlightened, despite the Benevolent Despotism, and they had a different evaluation. But Versailles should just be one example for the extensive building programme of Louis XIV in and around Paris, but in this introduction it perfectly works as a foretaste for the large scale the programme is basing on. It is well thought, not only physically, but socially, politically and historically to reach the aims of this absolutistic emperor. The German Philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel once uttered in one of his lectures on the philosophy of art the following statement: 'Architecture is symbolic; it reflects the spirit.' Louis XIV personifying this motto, his architecture reflects the spirit of absolutism in various styles. The architectural traces of his reign are the opposite of modest and feeble. He understood himself as the legitimate offspring of Apollo, the king of the sun, and the emperors of the antique, this is why he called himself the Roi du Soleil. Louis XIV knew about the quality of buildings compared to paintings or sculptures, as their monumental (Lat. monere, to remember) effect is much higher and, plus, more durable due to its physical nature. Royal edifices have ever since been a visiting card for the political power, wealth, artistic taste and the way a monarch sees himself. Louis XIV's aim was to manifest his 'gloire', his glorious reputation, to translate this into action he preferred architecture to military campaigns or political treaties....
Essay from the year 2005 in the subject Art - Architecture / History of Construction, grade: 74 out of 80, University of Essex, 8 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: In this essay, I shall depict one of the reasons for and ways of shaping the city during the Italian renaissance. I will be looking at the architecture of a handful of Tuscany's bigger and smaller cities and the way they represented themselves throughout the centuries. What were the major differences between them, and what did they have in common? Referring to the title and taking the skyline as a measure to differentiate, I shall show and explain the motivations to build the significant buildings of these cities. Starting with Lucca, Siena, Volterra and San Gimignano in comparison, however, the focus in the end will be on Florence as the major Tuscan city. Where possible, pictures will be given to help visualising my arguments and for better understanding. The German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel once uttered in one of his lectures on the philosophy of art the statement: 'Architecture is symbolic; it reflects the spirit.' Especially for the cities of Tuscany, before, during and after the renaissance I think this sentence is very true. In no other way we can trace the way a city has seen itself so directly as by its architecture. Their symbolic character is a perfect source for they way the city's inhabitants thought and searched to express themselves at that time. If we imagine ourselves to be back in the 14th or 15th century in central Italy, the paradigms for what was important need to be reset onto a totally different level. To make a provocative statement, our time is dominated by overstimulation, freedom of choice and a life of plenty, making us insensitive and indifferent towards sensations and unable to measure the greatness of some things in life. Back in the early renaissance, the meaning of faith, power, wealth and life itself was bigger. The dimension of a building was still something to amaze people, and the greatness of its designer worth to praise him. To have the power and wealth to build anything of significance meant either to be a rich man or to belong to the church or to both, as we will see later.Jahrgang 1976, Studium der Europäischen Ethnologie und Kunstgeschichte in Marburg, Jena und Colchester/GB Seit 2008 als Autorin, Journalistin, Fotografin im History Marketing tätig....
Essay from the year 2005 in the subject Art - Architecture / History of Construction, grade: 62 out of 80, University of Essex, course: Shaping the city, 6 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: What were the main ideas of the Garden City and how far did the ideas succeed? Over 100 years ago, Europe and its cities were struggling with a major problem that threatened politicians and workers in both ways: there were too many people for too little space. The Industrial Revolution had turned out to be a Pandora's box that had been opened to let her plagues out on the city and their inhabitants: constant immigration, mass population, serious lack of housing and therefore catastrophic living conditions made life hard for the working class. There had to be found a solution to the problem of hygiene and housing, but without rebuilding the city nor creating further ghettos and slums for the people on the lowest part of the social range. In this essay I try to depict how Ebenezer Howard designed with his 1898 published work, 'To-morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform', a way out of this disaster. He not only worked it out practically, but thought out a whole ideology of how to decongest the major cities by building new so-called garden cities where people should live mutually, healthy and happily. While doing so, I will not only focus on the realisation of this new town-planning idea in England, but also on his consequences on the continent, especially in Germany, where it found numerous imitators. Finally, I shall look at what is left from Howard's book in the practice of present design of better building and living.
Seminar paper from the year 2003 in the subject Art - Architecture / History of Construction, grade: 2, University of Constance, course: , 13 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: The issue of the second discussion in Darmstadt was set under the title 'Mensch und Raum' (Man and Space) August 5th, 1951. The lecture, which was presented by Martin Heidegger called 'Building - Dwelling - Thinking'. This lecture will obtain the most important interest in this paper.
The main intention is to understand what Martin Heidegger meant with his philosophical approach towards architecture and also trying to see what is the purpose of architecture. The art of architecture with its enigma will be enlightened or will be still a mystery. To look for hints and statements in several sources will hopefully help us to find a way or at least will let us understand.
The aim towards this goal at first is to explain the most important terms, which Martin Heidegger is using. Especially with Martin Heidegger it will be important to know, what kind of language he is using and what is behind the terms he using in his descriptions. An other point which makes it important to deal with, will be the problem that we have two disciplines: philosophy and architecture, we know that the use of certain terms can be different in these cases, so similar than Martin Heidegger was doing it in his work 'Building - Dwelling - Thinking', there will be an explanation of the important terms.
The second part will deal with the explanation and the understanding of the enigma we worked on trough this paper. If it will be possible to understand or will it be to abstract to explain in such a short work.
For the fact, that the lecture was presented more than 50 years ago and for an amount of time almost nobody was interested in this work, it became more and more important in the last decades, especially in the theoretical architecture, as well as in philosophy and art itself. Therefore the main resources are based on articles, writings about Martin Heidegger and his own writings.
By the end we will hopefully understand the idea of 'Building - Dwelling - Thinking' and how Martin Heidegger thought about architecture as a way of being and dwelling.
Seminar paper from the year 2008 in the subject Art - Architecture / History of Construction, grade: 74% entspricht 1,1, Coventry University, 13 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: Frank Lloyd Wright is one of the well-known architects of the 20th century. He was also an influential and known person during his lifetime and not only in the United States of America. His architecture influences even the architecture of today. Few of his innovations are e.g. the living room, a carport and an open floor plan (Wikipedia.org 2007). One of the most famous houses on earth, the Kaufmann House, better known as 'The Fallingwater', was designed and built up by this brilliant architect. Frank Lloyd Wright developed a series of individual styles during his over seventy years of architectural career. He designed an astonishing count of buildings from chicken coops to museums, but houses are remaining his huge legacy. This is why I want to concentrate my work to his first individual style of house design: the Prairie Houses. But first of all, I want to give some introducing information about Frank Lloyd Wright.
Seminar paper from the year 2008 in the subject Art - Architecture / History of Construction, grade: 2,0, University of California, Berkeley , 8 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: Germany's biggest island Rügen offers beautiful landscapes with endless beaches and forests. Just north of Binz, a small resort town at the sea, the island narrows because of the dimensions of Jasmund Bay. Here, there used to be a long, isolated beach adjacent to a forest, which covered the area between the bay and the beach. Nowadays, if you take a drive through the forest in order to find the beach, you will be surprised. Out of nowhere the forest darkens and a huge concrete wall arises and blocks your view as far as you can see. The 'KdF-Seebad der Zwanzigtausend', or the 'KdF sea resort of twenty thousand', is located north of the town Binz on the island of Rügen. Based on Adolf Hitler's idea, this sea resort building was built from May 1936 until the construction stopped at the beginning of the Second World War in 1939. The architect was Clemens Klotz. After the 2nd World War, Russian and East German troops were stationed in the remains of this building and practiced tank maneuvers in the woods. But also the time of the Cold War went by and the troops moved out and left an empty building. Currently this building is part ruin and part money pit for the adjacent counties. A small youth hostel and a little, unimpressive museum about Nazi Prora are the only proof of life and occupy about 3 percent of the space of the original construction. Prora can be seen as a monument now, a monument which demonstrates the definitions of National Socialist architecture, its unique characteristics and contradictions. It embodies the ideology of Nazi Germany from 1933-1945 in various themes. In order to be more specific, it is essential to briefly observe Nazi architecture in its historical context, followed by a critical observation of the site of the Prora sea resort. Content: The Scale Issue of 'The Colossus' 5 Style Issue7 Prora and the people in the context of National Socialism 9 Conclusion11 Appendices12 Annotated Bibliography19...
Baroque architect and mathematician Guarino Guarini is the subject of this issue of the Nexus Network Journal. A group of international scholars were invited to contribute papers that shed light on the unanswered questions in several areas: Baroque architecture in general and Guarini's architecture in particular; philosophy; history of structural mechanics; mathematics and history of mathematics, cosmology. As always, the NNJ takes an interdisciplinary approach to the broad range of subjects that Guarini concerned himself with, thus the final results will add significantly to our understanding of how Guarini's actual practical and technical processes were informed by knowledge of his multifaceted scientific and philosophical interests.
This book reveals how advances in computer science and human-computer interaction impact Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) environments. The underlying theme of the contributions is the social affordances of physical objects. The collaborative situations illustrated in the book are not necessarily learning situation in a school sense. In summary, this book illustrates a turn in the field of CSCL and emphasizes an important message for a generation of CSCL users.