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On the 100th Anniversary of its sinking, King and Wilson tell the story of the Lusitania's glamorous passengers and the torpedo that ended an era and prompted the US entry into World War I.Lusitania: She was a ship of dreams, carrying millionaires and aristocrats, actresses and impresarios, writers and suffragettes - a microcosm of the last years of the waning Edwardian Era and the coming influences of the Twentieth Century. When she left New York on her final voyage, she sailed from the New World to the Old; yet an encounter with the machinery of the New World, in the form of a primitive German U-Boat, sent her - and her gilded passengers - to their tragic deaths and opened up a new era of indiscriminate warfare.
A hundred years after her sinking, Lusitania remains an evocative ship of mystery. Was she carrying munitions that exploded? Did Winston Churchill engineer a conspiracy that doomed the liner? Lost amid these tangled skeins is the romantic, vibrant, and finally heartrending tale of the passengers who sailed aboard her. Lives, relationships, and marriages ended in the icy waters off the Irish Sea; those who survived were left haunted and plagued with guilt. Now, authors Greg King and Penny Wilson resurrect this lost, glittering world to show the golden age of travel and illuminate the most prominent of Lusitania's passengers. Rarely was an era so glamorous; rarely was a ship so magnificent; and rarely was the human element of tragedy so quickly lost to diplomatic maneuvers and militaristic threats.
This report examines the effect of foreign direct investment (FDI) on the economy of Russian Federation.
Stretching across Europe and Asia, Russia is a vast country which possess spectacular wealth in the form of exploitable natural resources, technology, a large, skilled workforce, and nearly 150 million consumers whose needs are endless.
The importance of international capital flows has been steadily increasing over the past decades, with FDI becoming an important source of external finance. Attraction of FDI is forming a quite crucial aspect of government policy, based on implicit assumption that greater inflows of FDI will bring certain benefits to the country's economy. However, the issue of FDI impact is controversial both in theoretical and empirical terms. This paper makes an attempt to find some answers.
The report is organized as follows. The next section provides an overview of the main characteristics of the inward FDI flows and stocks in Russia. The second part traces the most visible economic benefits and risks Russia has derived from foreign direct investment. The final section examines the main policy implications based on the findings of the previous chapters.
This working paper has been prepared by Ms Anna Ternavskaya, Research Assistant at Leeds Metropolitan University under the direction of Mr Gerry Stewart. It is a condensed version of a study prepared for a Conference on Foreign Direct Investment: Opportunities and Challenges. The report is based on statistical data and material available up to the first quarter of 2007 and obtained primarily from statistics of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation (CBR) and the State Committee of the Russian Federation for Statistics (Goskomstat) as well as from international data compiled by UNCTAD and IMF. The transition process to the market-oriented system is the key issue in the Eastern European countries. A successful transition depends not only on the usage of domestic resources, but also on the inflow of foreign capital into the country. Foreign direct investment (FDI) is broadly defined as ownership of assets in one country by residents of another for purposes of controlling the use of those assets....
Seminar paper from the year 2002 in the subject Economics - Foreign Trade Theory, Trade Policy, grade: 1,1 (A), BVL Campus gGmbH (Transport Economics-Logistics), course: Business, 15 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: [...] The revolution in 1974 was the beginning of dramatic political, economical and social changes in the country. In 1986, when Portugal became a member of the European Community (now European Union), the economy began to grow even faster than it had been the case in the years before. 'Portugal's GDP per capita, which had been only 53 percent of the EU average in 1985, has now risen to more than 70% of the EU average by 1997.'1 As I was living in Portugal's capital Lisbon from 1984 until 1989, I personally experienced these great changes. I can remember that, e.g., chocolate was not known in Portugal until 1986. I also remember narrow roads which were in an extremely bad condition. Tramways and busses made me feel like in the 19th century. Furthermore, there were a lot of huts, particularly in the northern and in the eastern Lisbon periphery which I passed every morning on my way to school. These huts, in which mostly people from the former Portuguese colonies were living, disappeared between 1986 and 1990. Also the infrastructure was getting better and better. Many new roads and motorways were built, the tramway- and underground-system was modernised, big shopping- malls were built and you could suddenly buy almost everything (Haribo-Gummibärchen were sold in Portugal in 1986 for the first time and I guess I was the only one who bought them...) Beside these positive changes I also recognised, that people have changed their behaviour since the 1980's. When I arrived to Portugal with my family in 1984 the Portuguese seemed to be friendlier than any people I had met before and time did not seem to be important to them at all. People were just living somehow, many of them were happy, some were not but nobody really complained about the fact that Portugal was the poorest country in the western part of the European continent. Of course, the Portuguese are still very friendly, but in my opinion the difference between the busy and hectic Central Europeans and the Portuguese has become smaller. It is also quiet obvious that today the Portuguese do everything they can to improve the economic situation and the standard of living. Portugal wants to catch up. It already has caught up enormously in the past 15 years and I am sure that this positive development will continue in the future. 1Department of State,UnitedStatesofAmerica, Portugal 2000: Country Commercial Guide, http://www.state.gov/www/about_state/business/com_guides/2000/europe/portugal00_02.html, 27/06/02...
Seminar paper from the year 2004 in the subject Economics - Foreign Trade Theory, Trade Policy, grade: 1,7 (A-), Oulu University of Applied Sciences (Business School), course: Foreign Trade and Documents, 13 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: What is ATA carnet? ATA carnet means translated 'temporary admission'. It is an international customs document which allows duty- free and tax- free temporary import of goods for up to one year. It was founded in 1961 by the Customs Cooperation Council (CCC) - the forerunner of the World Customs Organization (WCO). The 'Customs Convention on the ATA Carnet for the Temporary Admission of Goods' replaced the former conventions concerning three main products: x Commercial samples The GATT International Convention to facilitate the importation of commercial samples and advertising material (Geneva 1952) x Professional equipment The CCC's Customs Convention on the temporary importation of professional equipment (Brussels 1961) x Goods for presentation or use at trade fairs, shows, exhibitions or similar events The CCC Customs Convention concerning facilities for the importation of goods for display or use at exhibitions, fairs, meetings or similar events (Brussels 1961). All this Conventions have been replaced by one, the WCO Istanbul Convention. But anyway, ATA Carnets do NOT cover perishable or consumable items or goods for processing or repair.
Seminar paper from the year 2005 in the subject Economics - Foreign Trade Theory, Trade Policy, grade: 2,0, Cracow University of Economics, 49 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: Preface For Hungary and the European Union, the 01. May 2004 is one of the most important dates of the history of Hungary, because they and 9 other countries joined the EU. Finally now the very long time of the separation between Eastern and Western Europe is over. It is now the first time in Europe that all countries of this big continent could life together in peace and can create an economical and political union. For Hungary it was like for the other new members a very long and hard way to transform the economy to the rules of the market economic system, but they have some advantages because they have started the reform process already before the political change. So as a reason now Hungary has received 31 billion euros as foreign direct investment until 2003. This means they have about 3.100 Euro FDI per inhabitant, only the Czech Republic has received more FDI per inhabitant. In the assay the authors want to concentrate to the historical background, the business law, the motivation for invest in Hungary and give some data about the FDI in Hungary.
Seminar paper from the year 2005 in the subject Economics - Foreign Trade Theory, Trade Policy, grade: A-, University of Auckland (Business School - Faculty of Economics), course: Trade & Development, 20 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: There has been a lot of work on the relation between openness and economic growth, with results being ambiguous. A study done by Sachs and Warner (1995), using a sample of 135 countries, has shown that there is a positive correlation between openness and growth, e.g. that trade liberalisation fosters economic performance. The assumptions and country categorisations of this study have been criticised by Rodriguez and Rodrik (2000); they concluded that low tariff rates do not necessarily imply higher growth rates but that tariff protection exceeding a certain level stifles growth. Dollar and Kray (cited in Santos-Paulino and Thirlwall, 2004) compared different sets of countries with each other and found out that changes in growth rates are positively correlated with the share of trade and thus greater openness has accelerated economic growth. This essay compares the foreign trade policy of Mexico and Costa Rica. Even though both countries pursued the same policies, some differences can be found. Both implemented a strategy of import-substituting industrialisation until the serious crisis at the beginning of the 1980s, followed by a period of extensive trade liberalisation. This was due to pressure put on by the international institutions such as IMF or World Bank. While Mexico opened up its market, Costa Rica went further and lowered the import barriers. They put a strong emphasis on attracting foreign direct investment. With an average annual growth rate of 4.78 percent in Costa Rica and 4.43 percent in Mexico over the last four decades both countries achieved a strong economic growth exceeding the average of all other Latin American countries. However a positive interrelation between openness and growth could not be found in this study. This essay is structured in four main parts. Section II of this paper deals with the fundamental comparability of Mexico and Costa Rica. Section III portrays the foreign trade policies of both countries and illustrates the main similarities and differences. The development of growth is outlined in Section IV. Section V concludes the paper....
Master's Thesis from the year 2007 in the subject Economy - Transport Economics, grade: 1,3, Humboldt-University of Berlin, 90 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: This paper examines actual entry and exit dynamics in the German airline market in light of the European liberalization process. For this purpose, flight schedules data was used to derive entry and exit statistics for a set of chosen inner-German routes over a period of thirteen years. Data was analysed in cross-sectional and longitudinal manner while identifying different entry waves and examining incumbent behaviour with respect to entry deterrence strategies. Furthermore, the market's concentration and structure was tracked to allow a conclusion with respect to the market's contestability after liberalization. The results suggest the existence of remaining structural barriers to entry and depict a rather unsatisfactory overall state of the post liberalized market.Nicole Petrick-Felber hat Wirtschaftswissenschaften an der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, der Higher School of Economics Moskau und der ESCP Europe Paris studiert. Sie hat einen Abschluss als Master of Science in Economics and Management Sciences der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin und arbeitet als Unternehmensberaterin.
Diploma Thesis from the year 2010 in the subject Economics - Foreign Trade Theory, Trade Policy, grade: 1,0, University of Osnabrück (Fachbereich für Aussenwirtschaft), language: English, abstract: After the successful experience of newly industrializing countries in East Asia (e.g., the East Asian Tigers: Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan) in the 1960s and Southeast Asia (e.g., the Southeast Asian Little-Tigers: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand) by the late 1970s, trade liberalization (TL) in less developed countries (LDCs) has been considered as a policy to achieve rapid economic development. The argu-ment, put forward for instance by Dollar et al. [2002, p.195], that -TL is good for [economic] growth? and that -[economic] growth, [in turn], is good for the poor? has since served as the departure point for the discussion of the link between TL and poverty among economists, researchers, and policymakers alike. Spurred on by the dramatic failure of import substitution industrialization (ISI) strategies, and with the advice and support from international financial institutions (IFIs), such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Trade Organization (WTO), Krueger [1998, p.1521], for instance, finds that the intervening period has seen a large wave of TL episodes in countries in Latin America, Middle- and North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, and South Asia respectively. Believing that TL is vital for economic growth and poverty alleviation, these nations have frequently and extensively used it as a centerpiece for their development strategy. Howev-er, the high expectations held at the times those countries embarked on their trade policy reforms (TPRs) have not always been fulfilled in retrospect.
This bestselling, up-to-date guide shows you how to start your own import/export business, from researching a raw idea to a successful launch to ongoing, profitable business operations. Complete with real-life examples from importers and exporters, it helps you every step of the way, from targeting a market and preparing a business plan to dealing with foreign currencies, shipping procedures, customs requirements, and more. It also shares tips to help you take advantage of NAFTA and other trade pacts, plus online resources to help you start and grow your business.